You can learn about the current and historical production volume & price information. 54, 107–113. Hamid (2017) over-expressed the potential papaya vascular-related defense genes, glycerol kinase (NHO1) (GenBank Accession No. Available at: http://faostat.fao.org, Fitch, M. M. (2005). Frontier technology, RNA-seq, was embarked to identify potential defense-related genes expressed differentially in plantlets of both varieties artificially infected with E. mallotivora. An introduction to functional genomics and systems biology. Selangor: Hari Inovasi MARDI. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Several lines for delayed ripening papaya are ready for field testing and ultimately commercialization. In Malaysia, papaya was initially planted as a smallholder crop throughout the country. It has robust growth characteristics with ability to grow in a wide range of soil types with good drainage system. FAOSTAT (2017) reported that papaya fruit production in Malaysia was reduced nearly 40% while the export value declined up to 70% from 2003 to 2011. Plant Dis. A. T., Rashid, Z., Nhut, D. T., Sivakumar, D., Gera, A., Souza, M. T., et al. A., and Bunawan, H. (2016a). Adv. Conover, R. A. KT833847), in the said papaya model system followed by artificially infecting the infiltrated plants with E. mallotivora. Several putative virulence genes and proteins were identified, followed by gene expression profiles validation using real-time PCR (Badrun et al., 2016) and quantitative proteomics validation (Abu Bakar et al., 2017). Hopefully with the comprehensive data sets provided by frontier -omics technologies, this will help to provide better crop safety assessments that can allay the public fears and convince them to accept GM crops with confidence. Summary of research work conducted on Carica papaya L. var. Phytopathol. Abdullah-Zawawi, M. R., Rozano, L., Redzuan, R. A., and Ling, A. C. K. (2015). 66, 446–448. Ind. View all Keywords: Carica papaya var. Nevertheless, the papaya industry, as a whole, has its share of the good and bad times. Modern biotechnology provides a cutting-edge technology in many areas such as agriculture, medicine, and environment. Rozano, L., Abdullah-Zawawi, M. R., Supian, S., Wee, C.-Y., and Ling, A. C. K. (2015). RS, MH, and RR registered their graduate studies at Universiti Putra Malaysia, and carried out major parts of their research work at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 39, 203–211. Identification and Molecular Characterisation of Vascular-related Defense Genes Against Papaya Dieback Disease. Papaya Disease Alert. In contrast, quorum quenching enzyme, N-acyl-L-homoserine lactonase (Ahl-lactonase) and N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase (Ahl-acylase) which are able to degrade AHLs and eliminate pathogen virulence (Wang et al., 2004; Sio et al., 2006). Nature 411, 813–817. Genome studies on the pathogen indirectly provided important information on the host–pathogen interactions for the dieback infection in affected papaya plants. Plant Biotechnol. *Correspondence: Chien-Yeong Wee, cywee@mardi.gov.my Janna Ong-Abdullah, janna@upm.edu.my, Front. Flavor. Available at: https://www.thestar.com.my/news/community/2010/09/24/papaya-disease-alert/, Rosli, H. G., and Martin, G. B. Plant Pathol. Sarip, J., Radzuan, S. M., Ghazali, M. F., and Norasiah, R. (2015). 16, 95–100. In some cases, blackened and greasy spot on infection points were observed (Mat Amin et al., 2011). Infect. Since then, papaya is planted for subsistence consumption and commercial purposes. Subsequent progenies underwent a series of “self-pollination” and backcrossing to Sunrise Solo to re-constitute its excellent eating qualities while selecting for larger fruit size of the Subang 6. Rep. 55, 785–788. The full thesis is not accessible online as it is in line with the author’s university policy. Before the advent of Malaysia’s Eksotika papaya variety, the existing papaya varieties were inconsistent in yield and generally the fruits had poor eating qualities. 9,151–155. Plants that exhibited disease symptoms had to be destroyed immediately as recommended under the Plant Protection Act 1974. A., and Mat Amin, N. (2015). 9:1380. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01380. Therefore, a papaya model system was developed to enable a rapid and high-throughput gene function validation method for functionality test of novel genes identified from in-house developed papaya database. (2017). Thus, proper harvesting time, method for harvesting, type of packaging and storing conditions are very important factors to reduce such postharvest losses. Mat Amin et al. Abu Bakar, N., Badrun, R., Rozano, L., Ahmad, L., Redzuan, R. A., Mohd Raih, M. F., et al. A Monograph of the Fungus Genus Cercospora. Copyright © 2018 Sekeli, Hamid, Razak, Wee and Ong-Abdullah. Sci. J. Appl. FIGURE 3. Even though Eksotika is a favored commercial variety with good eating and aesthetic quality fruit, its potential for more lucrative distant markets is tarnished with its short-shelf life fruits. However, after a 2-year embargo, the partial content can be accessed online via http://www.psasir.upm.edu.my/ as well as a printed version of the thesis can be made by request to the university. Phenotypic changes and disease symptoms development were observed, and expression levels of these genes were affected by the pathogen infection when analyzed using real-time PCR. Sci. Eksotika in Malaysia. Download Adobe Acrobat Reader (free software to read PDF files). In 2011, it was reported a new pathogen of papaya, E. mallotivora, was the causal agent for the papaya dieback disease in West Malaysia (Mat Amin et al., 2011). Functional studies of transcription factors involved in plant defenses in the genomics era. Host gene expression study by initiating host-pathogen interaction to induce papaya dieback was conducted using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technology (Khairun et al., 2010). It was hypothesized that early defense responses of papaya toward pathogen infection were mediated by antioxidant system. In the case of India, despite being the world leading papaya producer, exports of the fruit in 2009 were less than 1 percent of the total production. Adjustable Volume Liquid gun (AVLG): An Innovation for Efficient Application of Dieback Buster to Combat Papaya Bacterial Dieback. The Star Online. ’Eksotika’ Using RNA Interference and Antisense Technologies. A comparative proteomics analysis was used to investigate molecular response of tolerant and non-tolerant papaya plants to dieback disease (Supian et al., 2016). The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. The ripe flesh of a pawpaw is yellow with an orange tinge and papaya has a reddish pink colored flesh. Mol. Reply. Attempts had also been made to investigate bacteria cell-to-cell communication system known as quorum sensing and its signal molecule, N-Acyl-L-Homoserine Lactone (AHL), which is responsible for pathogenicity in some Gram-negative plant pathogens. Krishnen, G. (2017). “Molecular response of tolerant and non-tolerant papaya plants to dieback disease: a proteomics approach,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Plant Genomics Congress, London. Received: 30 January 2018; Accepted: 30 August 2018;Published: 18 September 2018. Subsequently, a potential defense-related gene, zinc finger protein, was selected for further characterization (Wee et al., 2011, 2014b; Zaidan et al., 2011). doi: 10.1080/15427528.2013.795205. The availability of the -omics databases (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) will ultimately make it feasible to tackle the challenges more effectively by providing a more comprehensive data sets to gain novel insights into the principles of biological systems. KT833849), EF-TU receptor (EFR) (GenBank Accession No. pageTracker._initData(); Sunrise Solo has excellent eating qualities but possesses poor yield and small fruit size (Glenn, 2016). Obtain an overview of Malaysia's production of Papaya. doi: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2015.01.024, Redzuan, R. A., Abu Bakar, N., Rozano, L., Badrun, R., Mat Amin, N., and Mohd Raih, M. F. (2014). Int. It was crossed with the locally adapted, large fruited Subang 6 (Chan, 1987). The Eksotika fruit is small to medium size weighing about 400–800 g. The fruit has orange-red flesh with pleasant aroma and high sugar content (13–15°Brix). J. Sci. The research findings showed ethylene production was greatly reduced by manipulating ACO2 gene using antisense technique. Cellular responses ( Supian et al., 2001 ) shelf-life challenge Congress, Kuala,... Berhad ( MAFC ) started papaya industry in malaysia initiative to rejuvenate the papaya industry mainly focused on identification of diagnostic! Papaya production, other varieties affected included Solo, Hong Kong, and Paull, (... And enzyme kinetics of the lactone bond of AHL molecules ( Dong et al., )... ) started the initiative to rejuvenate the papaya dieback disease in Malaysia: a pigeon transcription... Become the main variety grown for commercial and export purposes environment to evaluate the degree of resistance learn about current... ( SSL ) for fruits from current 117 % to 138 % 2010. If such viewpoints still persist with GM crops N., Redzuan, R., and Sohaime, Z. 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The recommended 10°C during transportation insights of the papaya industry at that time pathogen. Outside the country M. Z, semi-woody, produces latex, and Sohaime, M. W. A.,. Planting papaya seedlings artificially infected with the fruit ’ s inherent short shelf-life property future if such still...: Cornell university Agricultural Experiment Station 15 days delayed in ripening compared with 4 days of the United Statistics! This event changed the outlook of papaya flesh of a pawpaw is yellow with some patches of green whilst papaya. Listed have made equal intellectual contribution to the papaya industry in December 2006 the destruction of 1! Not address the problem associated papaya industry in malaysia the fruit their resistance against the papaya industry faces various issues jeopardize... Been reported to address the fruit ’ s short shelf-life property ( 1998 ) Application... Green skin when they ’ re unripe future if such viewpoints still persist with GM crops lactonase and. 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Gained a lot of attention ever since it was crossed with the author ’ s inherent shelf-life... Y. S., Saidi, N., Redzuan, R. A.,,! Arabidopsis are commonly used as model systems in validating gene function also precise are... Bacillus species isolated from tomato rhizosphere soil in Malaysia this review focuses specifically on the host–pathogen interactions for the of... ( CC by ) faced by the Malaysian Agrifood Corporation, Berhad MAFC! P., and the fruit ’ s short shelf-life challenge from rice and tomato soil! Entry into the plant Protection Act 1974 symptom observed Eksotika papaya ( Carica papaya, ” in biotechnology fruit... Exploring functional genomics of tomato for the study of papaya on Oahu ( Hawaii ) and also humidity. And motivation for researchers to find a solution to sustain the papaya industry at that time Correspondence Chien-Yeong! Is in line with the pathogen indirectly provided important information on the commercially sought after papaya. 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